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Why Java is platform-independent but not C++?
July 7, 2020 | SimbaQuartz
Both Java and C++ are efficient programming languages that use object-oriented programming(OOPs) paradigm. Java follows OOPs more than C++. Both support OOPs features like:
In this article, we are going to discuss the platform independence of Java and why C++ is not supporting platform independency.
We have heard that java is developed to eliminate the various drawbacks of C, C++. Although Java has mostly inherited its syntax from C++ and some major features as well. Java is preferred in almost all major organizations because it supports “code once, runs anywhere” made it platform-independent and easy to use and upgrade.
Before knowing why java is platform independent let’s have some brief about compiler phases:
Accepts high-level language code and tokenize the input to a valid set of tokens.
It checks the syntactical structure of the given input, i.e. whether the given input is in the correct syntax.
Interpret symbols, their types, and their relations with each other.
Intermediate Code Generation:
In the analysis-synthesis model of a compiler, the front end of a compiler translates a source program into an independent intermediate code.
It transforms the code and tries to improve the code by making it consume fewer resources (i.e. CPU, Memory) and deliver high speed.
Target Code Generation:
Use the optimized intermediate code and generates target code or machine code on which machine can operate easily.
A Java program whenever compiled, the compiler only generates the intermediate code called bytecode and on runtime, it generates machine code. Hence Java program has lesser compile-time and has higher runtime. Let’s have some elaboration on this:
High-level language code (i.e.: java code) goes to java compiler.
Java compiler follows the lexical analyzer phase, syntax analyzer phase, semantic analyzer phase and then goes the intermediate code generation phase.
On Intermediate code generation, phase Java compiler creates intermediate code i.e. bytecode
Bytecode is the machine-independent code ready to run on any environment or platform. This is responsible for java portability.
We can run Java bytecode on any machine having JDK installed and running, JVM takes up the bytecode and runs it on the machine.
We pass bytecode and run the java program. JDK first converts bytecode to machine code than it runs that code on that machine.
On the contrary, the C++ compiler takes the code, follow all the compiler phases and directly generates the machine code ready to run on a machine. Hence:
C++ has higher compile-time and
Where do we use Java or C++:
Where you are integrating your application software to multiple platforms use java.
Use java where you have a large codebase to handle.
Where you have a great extension plan for your application software.
Where you need to interact with memory very often.
You need to create the OS for your organization.